Babur – Founder and first emperor of the Mughal Empire

Babur was the founder of the Mughal Empire, the first Mughal Emperor and the grandfather of Akbar.

First Mughal Emperor Babur
First Mughal Emperor Babur  Image Source

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First Mughal Emperor Babur

Babur, born as Zahir ud-din Muhammad was the founder and the first mughal emperor in Indian subcontinent. Babur was born in Andijan in  Fergana Valley, in Uzbekistan. He was the eldest son of Umar Sheikh Mirza who was the governor of Fergana.

Babur was able to get the command on Fergana at the age of 12 in 1494 and he soon faced rebellion. He defeated Samarkand after 2 years and lost Fergana. He reconquered Fergana and lost Samarkand again in his attempt to conquer Fergana. In 1501, Muhammad Shaybani (an Uzbek leader) Khan defeated him due to which Babur failed to conquer these two regions. Babur conquered Kabul in 1504. Then he conquered parts of Turkistan, including Samarkand in partnership with Ismail, a safavid ruler.

Babur lost Samarkand third time and then paid attention towards India. During that time Ibrahim Khan Lodi from Lodi dynasty of Afghan was ruling Indo-Gangetic Plain of Indian subcontinent. At the same time, Rana Sanga from Mewar was ruling the Rajputana areas. Babur first defeated Ibrahim Lodi in the First Battle of Panipat held in 1526 CE and formed the Mughal Empire. Then he defeated Rana Sanga in the Battle of Khanwa in 1527.

Initially Rana Sanga had assured Babur that he will help him in defeating Ibrahim Lodi. But when they realised that Babur had no plans to leave India, Rana Sanga sent his army of Rajputs to throw him out of the country. However, Babur had defeated Rana.

Babur had many wives. Some of his impressive sons were HumayunKamran Mirza and Hindal Mirza. Humayun succeeded him after his death in 1530. At first Babur was buried in Agra and later he was reburied in Kabul according to his wish. Babur was a descendant of Timur. He is a national star in Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan where many of his poems are popular.

Babur had written Baburnama in turkish language which was later translated into Persian language by his grandson Akbar during his reign in 1556 to 1605.


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