Umar Shaikh Mirza II – The emperor of the Timurid Empire

Umar Shaikh Mirza II

Umar Shaikh Mirza II was the emperor of the Timurid Empire (now Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan and eastern Iran) and the father of the founder of the Mughal Empire, Babur. He ruled the Ferghana Valley from 1456 to 1494 C.E.

Umar Shaikh married to the daughter of Yunus Khan from Moghulistan, Qutlugh Nigar Khanum. She was his first wife and the chief consort. Babur was his eldest son from the first wife, Qutlugh Nigar Khanum who founded the Mughal Empire in 1526. Umar Shaikh had three sons and five daughters from other 2 wives.

A painting of Umar Shaikh Mirza II
Image credit: Wikipedia

Umar Shaikh Mirza II died in an unusual accident on 10th June 1494 in north Ferghana.  It happened when he was in his hutch which was built at the edge of the building. It collapsed due to which eleven-year-old Babur became the ruler of Fergana.

Quick Facts

  • Full Name: Umar Shaikh Mirza II
  • Born: 1456
  • Died: 10th June 1494
  • Reign: 1469 to 1494
  • Predecessor: Abu Said Mirza
  • Successor: Babur
  • Religion: Sunni Islam
  • Dynasty: Timurid
  • Spouse: Qutlugh Nigar Khanum, Ulus Agha, Fatma Sultan Agha, Makhdum, Sultan Begum, Umid Aghacha, Yun Sultan Aghacha, Agha Sultan Aghacha
  • Father: Abu Said Mirza
  • Mother: Shah Sultan Begum
  • Famous as: Ruler of Ferghana


Shah Sultan Begum 

The mother of Umar Shaikh was named only in Baburnama, his son Babur‘s autobiography. This looked strange as Babur had provided the maternal ancestry for many of his relatives. However, Babur had also mentioned many times that Shah Sultan Begum (d. 1501) was Umar Shaikh’s mother. This is the main identification which is being used by historians.

Though Shah Sultan Begum’s own background was never mentioned.However, Khwand Amir, the vizier of Babur’s uncle Sultan Mahmud had referred to Umar Shaikh as the own younger brother of Mahmud and Sultan Ahmed. If they were interpreted to say that they were full brothers, it means that Shah Sultan Begum was mother of all three rulers.


  • Qutlugh Nigar Khanum (m.1475), daughter of Yunus Khan of Moghulistan and Aisan Daulat Begum.
  • Ulus Agha, daughter of Khwaja Hussein Beg.
  • Fatima Sultan Agha, daughter of Mogul Tumans.
  • Makhdum Sultan Begum, also known as Karaguz Begum.
  • Umid Aghacha, a concubine died before Mirza.
  • Yun Sultan Aghacha, a Moghul concubine.
  • Agha Sultan Aghacha, another concubine.


  • Babur – with Qutlugh Nigar Khanum.
  • Jahangir Mirza II (1485 – 1508) – with Fatima Sultan Agha.
  • Nasir Mirza (1487 – 1515) – with Umid Aghacha.


  • A stillborn daughter – with Ulus Agha.
  • Khanzada Begum (1478 – 1545) – with Qutlugh Nigar Khanum.
  • Mihr Banu Begum (born 1481) – with Umid Aghacha.
  • Shahr Banu Begum (1491 – 1542) – with Umid Aghacha, married to Junaid Barlas.
  • Yadgar Sultan Begum (born 1494) – with Agha Sultan Aghacha, married to Abdul Latif Sultan, son of Hamza Sultan.
  • Ruqaiya Sultan Begum (1494 – 1528) – with Makhdum Sultan Begum, married to Jani Beg Sultan.